In this piece, Aldrich presents three different types of responses (incrementalism, adaptation, and transformation) to climate change. He emphasizes the benefits and consequences of each and uses two case studies to further prove his points. By using the cases of Rotterdam and Houston, Aldrich illustrates how physical institutions alone are not enough and social infrastructure is equally as important. He concludes that many communities around the world are faced with increasing, inevitable climate-change related problems and that they need to decide what course of action they want to take to better prepare themselves for future disasters.

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